You know I get a kick out of those lying spin doctors, police officers, bad cops, union representatives, police lovers, bad PERSONS who STILL DO say that ALL OF bad people, INCLUDING the ALCOHOLICS, the bad cops and their bad supervisors too they can always be rehabilitated, retrained.. and how many millions of them now has this happened to them.. almost none.. a bad apple tends to get worse.. The RCMP maximum 10 days punishment is always absurd, permanent dismissal is what is always needed with the bad cops and their clearly bad superiors who had managed and hired them too.. Bad solicitor generals and bad Justice Ministers, bad Premiers, bad Prime Ministers as well should all be fired ASAP.
Federal Public Safety Minister Vic Toews denies knowing at the time about Ontario’s decision to pass a law giving police heightened powers during the G20 summer summit in Toronto. It comes after the province’s ombudsman, André Marin, tabled a scathing report this week on security decisions at the G20 that he said lead to the “most massive compromise of civil liberties in Canadian history.” Marin’s report also raised questions about the federal role in the security decisions for the G8 and G20 summits in June.But Toews, the minister responsible for the RCMP, insisted the decision to give police special powers at the summit was a provincial matter that had nothing to do with him or his department.”You’re talking about the regulation that the McGuinty government passed? It was sometime after the G8/G20 event,” Toews told reporters Wednesday when asked about when he learned of Ontario’s passing changes to the Public Works Protection Act.” I certainly wasn’t aware of the concerns that were being raised with the bill.”That statement contradicts at least one of the findings of Marin, whose report suggests the RCMP and Toews’s department did know about the Toronto police request to have the controversial regulation passed. he ombudsman said the RCMP and, by extension, Toews’s department, should have known. Marin added that part of the reason why Toronto police turned to the Ontario government was that federal officials were reluctant to use an existing federal law for security. Liberal public safety critic Mark Holland said the federal government is simply refusing to be accountable. “It is absolutely ludicrous they would say they’re not responsible for security when they headed the task force that integrated and co-ordinated all security,” Holland said Wednesday. “On the one hand, they led it all. And on the other hand, they say they have no responsiblity.” All three opposition parties are now calling for a full public inquiry into summit security, while Holland said attempts by the Commons public safety committee to get to the bottom of the federal role have gone nowhere. http://ca.news.yahoo.com/toews-denies-role-g20-police-law.html
Canadian Justice is too often an empty one. The establishment cover ups for it’s own and prevails. http://thenonconformer.wordpress.com/2010/05/25/canadas-two-tiered-justice-system-opposed/
An Ontario police watchdog is not holding any officers accountable for separate incidents in which it says excessive force was likely used against two civilians at a G20 protest in Toronto. The SIU concluded that officers were not at fault for four of the incidents, citing either a lack of evidence to support the theory that excessive force was used, or an inability to determine how exactly the complainants sustained their injuries.
Did anyone really expect to see officers charged.
The security task force was given carte blanche to do whatever they felt necessary. The fate of individuals was sealed weeks before the summit.
it pretty hard to believe they could not track down some of their own officers, gotta say.
What did we expect? There will be no court room justice for any citizen who was assaulted by “peace officers” during the G20. The best we can do is exercise our free speech and video to expose and embarrass them for the thugs and liars they are.
Nothing like letting the police investigate themselves!
Anyone recall the news story about the same investigators finding no fault for officers who removed their name badges, the ones attached with velcro to allow for easy removal?
Our RCMP was deliberately used to assault peaceful Canadian citizens and to violate our rights. Time to get rid of this government.
Less justice translates into less respect for the officers
It’s no wonder cops run wild in this city, they don’t have anything to fear because they believe they can get away with anything. Speeding, excessive force, abuse of power on all grounds. So many stories out there.
SIU investigating the police is like asking bell to investigate bell or rogers to investigate rogers. They all think their innocent and usually aren’t.
Don’t get me wrong many good police officers out there and it’s usually the older ones, the rookies have this god complex going on..
They could not find any evidence of guilt cause they shut their eyes to it.
My having dealt with bad police, and medical investigators, useless watchdogs I too often do know their false approach, the lies they tell often too.. their mere false lying coverups do not change the reality or of how many people do still see them now too.. In one case the RCMP investigator never talked to the bad cops, he rather investigated the person making the complaint, me. Mention the word cops, politician to an ordinary Canadian Joe and you often get a reply.. they are “liars”.. what a reputation to live down.
Ottawa itself is in an uproar over the way police treated the now famous Stacy Bonds, and rightly so. The “justice” system is already showing that it places protecting its own above protecting the public.
The provincial attorney general is the one who should be doing something about the way the system handled the forceful strip search of the diminutive Ottawa woman, but that would mean admitting the Crown got this wrong. Judge Richard Lajoie’s ruling that the arrest of Bonds was unlawful, her detention violated Charter rights and the case was a “travesty.” Rather than create an independent review of the Crown’s actions, Bentley turned to the subordinate in charge of prosecution and asked him if he thought his people acted properly. What a surprise that he would say yes. The province’s Special Investigations Unit is investigating, but the Bonds matter actually falls outside the organization’s mandate, which allows it to look at matters involving death, sexual assault or serious injury. There was no serious injury in the Bonds case and it would probably be pushing it to describe what occurred as a sexual assault. The SIU is likely to conclude that there is nothing it can do. The images of four male police officers forcing Bonds to the floor before the officer in charge cut her clothes off might seem outrageous to the public and the judge who tossed out the charge against Bonds, but the Crown has never identified a problem with what took place. The conduct of individual police officers in this case fell well below the standard that we should expect, but the Crown’s failure to perceive it is the most shocking element of this whole sorry situation. A reasonable person, let alone an experienced Crown attorney, should have expressed concern to Chief White about the officers’ conduct. Nothing was said, even though Bonds’ defence lawyer raised concerns with the actions caught on tape. Two years after the event, the Crown was still arguing in front of a judge that the police officers were, in effect, the victims. Despite his attorney general’s support for the Crown prosecutors, Premier Dalton McGuinty on Friday made a wishy-washy statement about maybe reviewing the Bonds affair to see if something could be learned from it. That’s not nearly good enough. The point was further amplified by the news Friday that two more cases have been thrown out because of similar police behaviour. In effect, the attorney general is saying it’s OK to arrest a woman on the flimsiest of pretexts, manhandle her, strip search her in disregard of guidelines established by the Supreme Court, toss her in a cell half-naked, then charge her with assaulting police. It’s an outrageous position. The system simply isn’t working. The Crown attorneys are the ones who are supposed to determine whether charges are in the public interest and if there is a reasonable prospect of conviction. They are meant to offer sober second thought and to prevent people being hauled into court simply on the say-so of the police. They haven’t done their job properly. Neither has the attorney general. At this point, Dalton McGuinty is the only person who can restore some sanity to the system. The last thing the embattled premier needs is another controversy, but it’s time for an independent investigation and maybe even a new attorney general. The people give enormous powers to the police and the Crown with the trust that they will use those powers wisely. The Bonds incident has called that trust into question. Restoring the public’s faith is essential. This isn’t a situation where the people in charge can shrug and drive on. http://www.ottawacitizen.com/travel/Randall+this+system+seems+everyone+blind+justice/3891595/story.html
A democratic, free nation never needs to fear any oppression, perversity intimidation even by police or the state.
But Stacy Bonds a Canadian had been mistreated by Ottawa police in Canada’s nation’s capital. Stacy Bonds, a young black person with no criminal history managed to provoked the Ottawa Police into horrific abusive acts and a false arrest apparently for asking the same police as to why police had stopped her for questioning. Stacy Bonds was not drunk nor behaving inappropriately. The police stopped her and asked her name; she provided it. After checking her name and finding nothing, the police told her she could go on her way. Bonds, in her perfect right, next had asked why she had been stopped in the first place. In response, the bad police officers had arrested her for public intoxication and handcuffed her. Bonds was taken to Ottawa Police headquarters,where the the judge noted that she was anything but “violent or aggressive.” In spite on her part the lack of violence or aggression, Bonds was next assaulted by many police officers by “two extremely violent knee hits in the back … and has her hair pulled back and her face shoved forward.”Next Bonds was forced to the ground with a riot shield — though she was “not resisting with hands flailing or feet flailing,” as the judge had said — and subjected to a strip search. The video shows four male officers and one female officer taking part in, or watching, as Bonds was forced to the ground. The Judge Lajoie severely criticized police actions at the station, saying it was “an indignity toward a human being and should be denounced.”
Now in the absence of the video recording, would Bonds have had a fair hearing? Unlikely!
Visibly “There is a malaise in the Justice system. How could these five police officers have taken part in the brutalization of Stacy Bonds and then also allowed charges for “assault police” to go ahead?
How could a Crown Attorney have failed to stay charges even on seeing the video? Of a more general rightful concern also is , how is it that people whose job it is to see justice done acted so unjustly? and likley more than once”
For the sake of all Canadians another case like that of Stacy Bonds must be insured to never be allowed to happen again by exemplary punishing the bad Ottawa police officers and their bad supervisors, the related justice personnel as well. Clearly also new enforced professionalism , ethics are now required in the Canadian justice system.
The popularity of Robin Hood even centuries later personifies some great simple truths about what bad rulers do and do not do.. at both the federal and provincial levels. A good ruler runs the wheel over the wicked persons, even bad cops, those who abuse their offices, who live high on the hog too, but also do cares about the welfare of all the persons, the poor included.. Interesting that not only the Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper but now also the Liberal premier of three Provinces BC, Quebec and Ontario,and the Conservative Premier of Alberta clearly are unpopular these days with the citizens cause they fall short in this areas.
A former RCMP murder investigator involved in the high-profile “Surrey Six” slayings has pleaded guilty to attempting to defraud the Mounties with a fake $700 overtime bill. Steven Perreault, 39, a four-year Mountie and former member of the regional Integrated Homicide Investigation Team, has been fined $500, placed on probation for a year and ordered to perform 50 hours of community service. Perreault was driven to submit the fake claim because of money troubles. His fiancee wanted him to spend more time with her and financial pressure was causing him to work many hours of overtime. The Crown had been asking for a two-month prison sentence with one year’s probation, arguing that Perreault, as a police officer, should be held to a higher standard. If Perreault fulfils the conditions of his sentence, he will receive a discharge, leaving him without a criminal record. http://www.theprovince.com/RCMP+officer+pleads+guilty+fraud+attempt/3754260/story.html
A Vancouver area RCMP officer has been sentenced to 60 days in jail — to be served on weekends — after pleading guilty to two impaired driving charges. Vernon James Wilson, 56, also pleaded guilty to dangerous driving causing bodily harm and driving while prohibited. He was also fined $1,100, put on two years probation, banned from driving for two years and handed a lifetime ban from consuming alcohol. Wilson had been suspended from the force without pay since November 2009 after he was stopped in a car by police after he was seen urinating in a public place near Spanish Banks. One month earlier, Wilson flipped a vehicle on the Ironworkers Memorial Bridge in Vancouver while impaired, injuring two passengers. Wilson has been an RCMP officer for 16 years and will undergo an internal disciplinary hearing http://ca.news.yahoo.com/b-c-mountie-gets-60-day-jail-sentence.html
I too have often rightfully said and detailed as to how that the RCMP Mounties, drive impaired, drunk, abuse others cheat lies steal, are cost ineffective as well! Too often lying, immoral, alcoholic RCMP officers are always an unacceptable problem as well.. Do note I have been rightfully complaining for half a century about the too often bad, drunk, cost ineffective, pretentious RCMP ever since they had abused me in the Canmore Alberta more and their revenue generating money pit where they make for decades millions and millions of dollars from tourist leaving the Banff park
and cops falsely are still mainly going after the car speeders, the money making generating revenues and not the drunk drivers who cause the majority of the accidents too.. EVEN COPS, RCMP DRIVE WHEN DRUNK THESE DAYS IN CANADA
The RCMP PR department in the past had lied about the number of drunk RCMP officers. We can all know that too many RCMP officers wrongfully do lie, their bad managers included.. sadly they the RCMP are also unacceptable hypocrites. they arrest others for drunk driving while many of them do the same thing too.. Cops need to be judged with a higher standard cause they are also to be exemplary.. Furthermore the punishment for an RCMP who is caught drunk is absurd,, alcoholics tend not to change.. rather they get worse.. all cops who drive or work while they are drunk should be fired from their job period!
VERNON — An RCMP panel has ruled a Vernon Mountie who pleaded guilty earlier this year to a drinking driving offence will forfeit nine days of pay.Constable Jody Turpin refused to provide a breath sample in December 2009.He was fined $1,000 and lost his drivers license for a year.He will not be able to drive until March 2011.Turpin is now back to active duty.
CBC News -Mistrial declared over Mountie’s undisclosed history A judge has declared a mistrial in the case of a man charged with a drinking-and-driving offence. (CBC)A Saskatoon judge has declared a mistrial in a drunk-driving case where the arresting officer had a history that was not disclosed. The case dates back to April when Darren Usselman was charged with having a blood-alcohol level over .08 while operating his truck. The provincial court case went to trial in June. RCMP officer Sgt. Warren Gherasim, who did the roadside test, was the Crown’s main witness. Usselman was found guilty, but then defence lawyer Ron Piche stumbled across Gherasim’s background. “It was learned that the sole witness, the main investigating officer, was himself the subject of disciplinary proceedings, professional standards and the like, in connection with an allegation of having consumed alcohol and driven his vehicle and being in an accident,” Piche said. Gherasim had been sanctioned in 2006 for disgraceful conduct after rolling his vehicle while off-duty. He admitted at an internal hearing that he had been drinking, but he was never charged. He was suspended without pay for eight days. A Supreme Court ruling in 2009 said that police must tell the Crown about any misconduct records which may have a bearing on a case. Under disclosure rules, the Crown would then be required to disclose this information to the defence. Before Usselman could be sentenced, Judge Marilyn Gray declared a mistrial.n her written decision she said, “Here the officer had been disciplined for the very conduct of which Mr. Usselman had been accused.” Piche said it would’ve come up in cross examination, had he known.”It may have influenced the result of the case, obviously, because credibility is always an issue, not only with civilians but police witnesses as well,” he said.
CBC News A Saskatchewan RCMP officer has been charged with assault causing bodily harm following an incident in Melfort earlier this month.Charged is Const. Anthony Bear, 26, of La Loche. Bear was off-duty at the time of the incident and the victim is a man, the RCMP said.Bear was formally charged Thursday night and has been issued a promise to appear in Melfort provincial court on Dec. 14.No internal code of conduct process has been ordered, the RCMP said.Bear is currently not on active duty, the RCMP said. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/saskatchewan/story/2010/11/19/sk-rcmp-assault-charge-1011.html#ixzz15lqE0cJQ
Frank Paul, drunk and barely conscious, was left to freeze in an alleyway by Vancouver police officers on Dec. 5, 1998. Ian Bush was shot in the back of the head in an interrogation room by an RCMP officer in northern B.C. on Oct. 29, 2005. Polish immigrant Robert Dziekanski was Tasered five times by four RCMP officers on Oct. 14, 2007, after he spent hours wandering the Vancouver International Airport looking for his mother. The officers involved in all three of these cases were investigated by other police officers and cleared of wrongdoing. That’s because in British Columbia, when people are injured or killed while in police custody, other police officers determine whether misconduct has occurred. These and other high-profile police-involved deaths has led to widespread outcry and two public inquiries — the Davies Commission in 2009 and the Braidwood Inquiry in 2010 — that strongly recommended police stop investigating themselves. As a result, B.C. Attorney General Mike de Jong announced in June that the government would create an independent, civilian-led body to investigate injuries or deaths involving municipal police and RCMP. The Independent Investigations Office is scheduled to be up and running by summer 2011. Many say it’s long overdue. SHOULD POLICE INVESTIGATE THEMSELVES? British Columbia is not the first province to create a civilian-led organization to investigate incidents in which people have been harmed or killed in police custody. Ontario and Alberta already have such bodies and Manitoba and Nova Scotia are following suit. None of the other provinces has a civilian oversight body. Ontario’s Special Investigations Unit was created after several controversial police shootings of black men in the late 1980s. Director Ian Scott said civilian oversight bodies typically arise after a police incident that incites public outrage. http://www.vancouversun.com/news/Special+Investigation+policing+police/3790737/story.html
Vancouver police cleared in man’s beating and one time too many now still.. Two Vancouver police officers who faced an allegation of abuse of authority have been cleared by Delta police investigating the incident. So what else is new . this is common in BC, the wrongful norm .The accusation of the police officers immoral actions was made after the officers went to the wrong entrance of a home when investigating a domestic-violence call around 2:15 a.m. on Jan 21. A woman called 911 to report that her husband was drunk and had assaulted her. When these plainclothes officers arrived at the address provided, they believed Yao Wei Wu, 44, was their suspect and used force to arrest him, resulting in injuries to Wu’s face, legs and back. The Delta police began to investigate what happened. The sole Delta police investigator found that, although Wu had seen the officers’ badges and knew they were police, he resisted arrest, prompting the officers to pull him to the ground, where he hit his face. He was also punched in the shoulder a number of times. Of course the Delta police Chief Jim Cessford concluded the officers were acting in good faith and in the course of their duties at the time of the incident; that they had reasonable grounds to believe an assault had occurred; and that Wu was the suspect or an assaultive subject and that the officers used reasonable force to control him. “The police officers believed they were doing the right thing, that they were protecting a woman who was being assaulted,” Cessford said.
Cameron Ward, a lawyer for Wu, called the investigation a “farce.”Ward said his client did nothing wrong and the findings are shocking. “This investigation was a farce,” he said. “It provides yet another example why police should not be investigating other police. It took Delta investigators more than nine months to investigate a brief incident in which the identities of those involved were immediately known.” Ward said investigators refused to believe Wu about the series of events. “In the end, the investigators chose to disbelieve Mr. Wu’s account of what happened to him, though he had no reason to lie. The investigators accepted the story of the two VPD members at face value, even though it is patently ridiculous and incredible. “The police-complaints process in British Columbia does a disservice to law-abiding citizens like Mr. Wu.”
Wu, said he “My family and I feel extremely disappointed and angry,” he said.“I was beaten by the police for no reason at the door of my home in the morning of Jan. 21 this year. “The matter was investigated for over nine months and the investigation report says that the police had reason to beat me, that I was beaten by the police because I resisted arrest and failed to co-operate, and that I fell and injured my eye. “This is absolutely a distortion of the facts. The police version is completely false.” Vancouver police initially said Wu resisted arrest, but Chief Jim Chu subsequently apologized, saying the officers were called to a domestic-violence incident but had the wrong address. http://www.theprovince.com/news/Vancouver+police+cleared+beating/3773655/story.html?cid=megadrop_story
VANCOUVER (CBC) – Despite being cleared in an investigation by an outside police force in connection with a man’s beating, two Vancouver police officers will be subject to a hearing set up by B.C.’s Police Complaint Commissioner. Yao Wei Wu suffered serious injuries after Const. Nicholas Florkow and Const. Bryan London came to his door Jan. 21, responding to a call about a man beating a woman. Vancouver police later apologized after admitting the plainclothes officers got the wrong man, but a review of the incident by the Delta police concluded Nov. 2 that no charges would be laid. Police Complaints Commissioner Stan Lowe announced Tuesday there must still be a formal inquiry. “I have determined that a public hearing this matter is required to preserve or restore public confidence in the investigation of misconduct and the administration of police discipline,” said Lowe. “There is a reasonable prospect that a public hearing will assist in determining the truth.”Lowe said the hearing would investigate an allegation of abuse of authority by the two officers, who are accused of using unnecessary force in dealing with Wei. The hearing will be held by retired B.C. Supreme Court Justice B.M. Preston, Lowe said. No date for the hearing was announced
An Investigation by an outside police force.. ha ha ha
One hope for B.C.’s new Independent Investigations Office is that it will complete investigations in a timely manner, which is severely lacking in the current system. It’s not uncommon for probes of police-involved deaths or injuries to drag on for years, as many of the police investigators juggle the files along with many other cases. By comparison, Ontario’s Special Investigations Unit aims for a 30-day turnaround on its cases. But that goal isn’t always met when it comes to more complicated shooting or death cases because investigators have to wait for pathology and toxicology tests to make their way through backlogged labs.
DON’T BE STUPID AND BELIVE ALL THE LYING SPINS AS TO WHY IT TAKES SO LONG TO INVESTIGATE THE BAD COPS.. I have had many experiences in laying simple complaints against bad cops that never got anywhere cause the investigators were clearly pretenders.. in Contrast the investigations of all citizens clearly would not take so long..
Almost since my first job after graduating from university in Montreal I had next learned that people are not to be trusted, need to be supervised, and corruption still exists Canada wide too in construction, universities, municipalities, governments, corporations, amongst professionals and politicians as well.
People in leadership office do have to face higher penalties as an example now too. It is clearly established, accepted fact by most people that those in leadership civil and public servants cops, teachers, ministers, politicians included are always to be exemplary in behavior, conduct and they do need to maintain their high standards even out of their working hours, thus to do so they are also to be exemplary judged, prosecuted for their own wrong doings with a higher standard over those of us ordinary folks. Too many police officers are now too often guilty of their most serious neglect of public trust and their duty. The related truth is that neither an independent police investigation, a new police commissioner, a promised provincial or federal investigation, or just more politicians promises too often still will not bring the much needed justice. All of the governments can prohibit the initial and further employment of any known racists for any jobs, and can punish them for their racists acts, views. Police managers continue to promise the reforming of bad cops and the bad cops keep killing, abusing innocent persons. The possible retaining of bad police officers is always anyway a false myth. What thus is always needed is the real the dismissal, criminal prosecution, of the guilty cops. So where is it
Tax payer’s money abuses, false expense account statements, stealing, tax evasions, obstruction of justice, cheating, lying, drunkenness, impaired driving, pornography, Adultery, VERBAL, PHYSICAL ABUSES, are all ESPECIALLY unacceptable for any civil and public servants. It is a clearly established fact with good basis as to why our Canadian leaders, politicians, police, military, public and civil servants who are always to be exemplary are even personally are to held to a higher standard, accountability in reality.
While bad doctors, bad cops, bad nurses, bad professionals tend to get of Scott free.. but not the citizens. Mostly Perverse justice ministers still make promises do deal with the issues that lack real substances..What thus is always needed is the real the dismissal, criminal prosecution, of the guilty persons, cops by an independent citizen based board, review and not rather masturbating bodies.. . So where is it ?
Bad policing as well is not uniquely a North American fact for these too often bad guys with badges can work anywhere in the world.
And hey I really rightfully do get upset with the bad people who cover up for the bad pastors, bad civil and public servants, bad cops.. and those who try to obstruct justice by trying to get rid of my posts like the bad RCMP too. And tell the RCMP to leave my web pages alone.. I have about 30 internet sites and the internet pages that are troubled are the ones solely about the bad RCMP or have cartoons about the bad RCMP.
LAZY, INDIFFERENT, IMMORAL, BAD POLICE, BAD JUSTICE MINSTERS, BAD SOLICITOR GENERALS is not a new aspect in Ottawa, Ontario and in the rest of Canada. SO NEVER EXPECT A FULL HONEST INVESTIGATION WHEN CLEARY THE RESULTS WILL SHOW BAD COPS, BAD ATTORNEY GENERALS, BAD MINISTERS WHO HAVE NOT BEING DOING A GOOD JOB. ALL UNACCEPTABLE. NOW WHY IS IT BAD PEOPLE DO NOT CHANGE NEXT BESIDE THE FACT THEY LIKE TO DO BAD THINGS, IT IS ALSO CAUSE THEY FALSELY REFUSE TO ADMIT THE THINGS THEY DO ARE BAD.
Public exposure and prosecution of the guilty is one of the best approach serving everyone’s best interest too. “In the case of police, it is in everyone’s best interest that there is full, effective, independent, transparent and objective oversight. It goes without saying that an absence of effective oversight will inevitably result in the erosion of the community’s confidence in the police.” http://thenonconformer.wordpress.com/2010/10/25/canadas-bad-police-officers/
Useless Chief to Meet with Officers Ottawa’s Police. Chief plans to meet with leaders of the police units today to discuss the Stacy Bonds case http://www.cfra.com/?cat=1&nid=77040
(Prov 20:26 KJV) A wise king scattereth the wicked, and bringeth the wheel over them. (Prov 28:15 KJV) As a roaring lion, and a ranging bear; so is a wicked ruler over the poor people.
Videos for Stacy Bonds
Meanwhile Wed Nov 3, 5:16 AM ST..JOHNS (CBC) – A central Newfoundland court sentenced a man to jail over a stolen block of cheese. Paulus Simeon Semigak, 52, was given a two-week jail sentence in Gander Tuesday after he was convicted of stealing from a Sobeys grocery store in St. John’s.Semigak,, had been charged with theft under $5,000, even though the block of cheddar cheese he had pinched was worth $6.22.Semigak will remain on probation for one year.